Active/Programmable Networking
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Active/Programmable Networking


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Description

According to DARPA, active networks allow individual users, or groups of users, to inject customized programs into the nodes of the network. Active architectures enable a massive increase in the complexity and customization of the computation that is performed within the network, e.g., that is interposed between the communicating end points.

This technology not only permits to design new and flexible services but also to deploy them rapidly, making active networks much more adaptive than legacy ones.

Research topics in this area concern mainly the active nodes internal architecture, performance, security, the global architecture of an active network, the services it would enable and their design (e.g. better support of multicasting, quality of service and mobility).

Some references

  • D. Tennenhouse and D. Wetherall : "Towards an Active Network Architecture". In proc. of Multimedia Computing and Networking 96, San Jose, California, January 1996.
  • D. Tennenhouse, J. Smith, D. Sincoskie, D. Wetherall, and G. Minden : "A Survey of Active Networking Research". IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 35(1) pp. 80-86, January 1997.
  • D. Wetherall, John Guttag, David Tennehouse: "ANTS, A toolkit for building and dynamically deploying network protocols", IEEE OPENARCH 98.
  • DARPA Activenet
  • Activeware
  • ANTS
  • ABONE

Research performed in RUN

Open, decentralised networks such as the Internet are increasingly heterogeneous and dynamic. Applications running over such networks must be able to cope with resource restrictions and operate under the most diverse conditions. This is even more important for group communication applications, since the differences among group participants must also be taken into account.

Active networking offers applications the opportunity to benefit from processing and storage in network nodes such that customised computations can be performed at strategic locations, with the potential to improve communication performance and to automate the deployment of new protocols and services. However, this implies that multiple types of resources must be shared in a decentralised way, over multiple nodes in a large and dynamic network. Finding distributed algorithms capable of achieving reasonable resource sharing configurations in such a scenario is a challenging problem.

In Lidia Yamamoto's thesis, mechanisms for group communication applications are studied that adapt to the available resources in an active network, with special attention to the possibility of substituting a scarce resource type for another, more plentiful one. She developed a group communication model for adaptive active applications that share multiple resources over multiple active nodes dynamically, and applied it to three case studies: (i) a "one-to-many" layered multicast protocol that takes only link resources into account in its adaptation decisions for congestion control; (ii) a "many-to-one" application that trades bandwidth for memory in order to avoid congestion; (iii) autonomous reflectors, a "many-to-many" application based on mobile code, in which reflectors within a group decide to migrate, clone or merge with other reflectors in order to achieve low cost tree configurations for the distribution of group data.

In the three cases, decentralised algorithms are shown that can choose the amount of given resource types in a best-effort way, without relying on advance resource reservations. For each of the cases, the aim of the algorithm is to extend traditional bandwidth-oriented congestion control in packet-based networks towards multi-resource congestion control in active networks, where partial substitutability of resources is possible. In the case of autonomous reflectors, the problem of choosing multiple locations where to deploy customised group functionality is also studied.

Besides, S. Martin proposed RADAR (Ring-based Adaptive Discovery of Active neighbour Routers). RADAR extends the ANTS toolkit by giving active nodes the ability to discover automatically other active nodes sufficiently close to them, without relying to any configuration. Such an automatic discovery is the key to the management of large and sparse active networks and the first step towards an efficient active routing. RADAR has also been refined to provide a better support for changing topologies like those encountered in mobile networks, and to reduce the resource consumption in case of such changes


Publications

* Fast Userspace Packet Processing
T. Barbette, C. Soldani and L. Mathy
Keywords : Click modular router, fast packet I/O, high speed networking, Intel DPDK, multi-queue, netmap, network processing, NUMA, performance, routers, userspace I/O
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Proc. of ANCS 2015, 7-8 May 2015, Oakland, CA, ACM/IEEE (ed.), pp. 5-16
* A Practical Bytecode Interpreter for Programmable Routers on Network Processor
S. Martin and G. Leduc
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Computer Networks, vol. 53, nb. 15, Oct. 2009, pp. 2740-2751
(ISI IF 2008 = 1.304)
* Ephemeral State Assisted Discovery of Peer-to-Peer Networks
S. Martin and G. Leduc
Keywords : bootstrapping, ephemeral state, Internet, peer-to-peer
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Proc. of IEEE ACNM 2007, 25 May 2007, Munich, Germany, R. Boutaba, M. Brunner, and S. Schmid (eds.), pp. 9-16
* Lightweight Programmable Ephemeral State on Routers to Support End-to-End Applications
S. Martin
Doctoral Thesis, University of Liège
Collection des Publications de la Faculté des Sciences Appliquées de l'Université de Liège, nr. 266, 2007, 179 pp.
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* Interpreted Active Packets for Ephemeral State Processing Routers
S. Martin and G. Leduc
Keywords : active network, ephemeral state, network processor
Mots-clés : état éphémère, network processor, réseaux actifs
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Proc. of 7th IFIP International Working Conference on Active and Programmable Networks (IWAN), 21-23 Nov. 2005, Sophia Antipolis, France, D. Hutchison, S. Denazis, L. Lefevre, G. J. Minden (eds.), Active and Programmable Networks, LNCS, 4388, pp. 156-167, Springer
(Acceptance ratio for full papers = 13/72 = 18%, ISI IF 2005 LNCS = 0.402)
* An Active Platform as Middleware for Services and Communities Discovery
S. Martin and G. Leduc
Keywords : Active networks, Platform, Service discovery
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Proc. of 2nd International Workshop on Active and Programmable Grids Architectures and Components (APGAC), 22-25 May 2005, Atlanta, USA, V. S. Sunderam, G. Dick van Albada, P. M. A. Sloot, et al. (eds.), Computational Science – ICCS 2005, Part III, LNCS, 3516, pp. 237-245, Springer-Verlag
(ISI IF 2005 LNCS = 0.402)
* Performance Study of an Overlay Approach to Active Routing in Ad Hoc Networks
S. Calomme and G. Leduc
Keywords : active, ad hoc, overlay
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Proc. of The Third Annual Mediterranean Ad Hoc Networking Workshop (Med-Hoc-Net 2004), 28-30 Jun. 2004, Bodrum, Turkey, I.F. Akyildiz, E. Cayirci, E. Ekici and G. Morabito (eds.), pp. 24-35
* A Dynamic Neighbourhood Discovery Protocol for Active Overlay Networks
S. Martin and G. Leduc
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Proc. of IWAN'2003, 10-12 Dec. 2003, Kyoto, Japan, N. Wakamiya, M. Solarski, J. Sterbenz (eds.), Active Networks, LNCS, 2982, pp. 151-162, Springer-Verlag
(Acceptance ratio = 24/73 = 33%, ISI IF 2002 LNCS = 0.515)
* Adaptive Group Communication over Active Networks
L. Yamamoto
Doctoral Thesis, University of Liège
Collection des Publications de la Faculté des Sciences Appliquées de l'Université de Liège, nr. 224, 2003, 166 pp.
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* Resource Trading Agents for Adaptive Active Network Applications
L. Yamamoto and G. Leduc
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In "Mobile Agents for Telecommunication Applications", Hermes Penton Science, UK, 2002
* RADAR: Ring-based Adaptative Discovery of Active neighbour Routers
S. Martin and G. Leduc
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Proc. of 4th International Working Conference on Active Networks (IWAN), 4-6 Dec. 2002, Zürich, Switzerland, J.Sterbenz, O.Takada, C.Tschudin, B.Plattner (eds.), Active Networks, LNCS, 2546, pp. 62-73, Springer Verlag
(Acceptance ratio = 20/53 = 38%, ISI IF 2002 LNCS = 0.515)
* Autonomous Reflectors over Active Networks: Towards Seamless Group Communication
L. Yamamoto and G. Leduc
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The Interdisciplinary Journal of Artificial Intelligence & the Simulation of Behaviour (AISBJ), vol. 1, nb. 1, Dec. 2001, pp. 125-146
Special issue on Agent Technology
* Building Bidirectional Multicast Trees Using Autonomous Reflectors
L. Yamamoto and G. Leduc
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IWAN'2001, Oct. 2001, Philadelphia, USA
Short paper
* Autonomous Multicast Reflectors over Active Networks
L. Yamamoto and G. Leduc
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Proc. of AISB Symposium on Software Mobility, Mar. 2001, York, UK
* Resource Trading Agents for Adaptive Active Network Applications
L. Yamamoto and G. Leduc
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Networking and Information Systems Journal, vol. 3, nbs. 4-5, 2000, pp. 743-768
* An Active Layered Multicast Adaptation Protocol
L. Yamamoto and G. Leduc
Keywords : active network, adaptive application, congestion control, layered multicast
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Proc. of Second International Working conference on Active Networks (IWAN 2000), 16-18 Oct. 2000, Tokyo, Japan, Hiroshi Yasuda (ed.), Active networks, LNCS, 1942, pp. 180-194, Springer Verlag
(ISI IF 2000 LNCS = 0.390)
* An Agent-inspired Active Network Resource Trading Model Applied to Congestion Control
L. Yamamoto and G. Leduc
Keywords : active network, adaptive application, concast, congestion control, mobile agent, mobile code
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Proc. of Second International Workshop on Mobile Agents for Telecommunication Applications (MATA'2000), 18-20 Sep. 2000, Paris, France, E. Horlait (ed.), Mobile Agents for Telecommunication Applications, LNCS, 1931, pp. 151-169, Springer-Verlag
(ISI IF 2000 LNCS = 0.390)

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